Hemlock Woolly Adelgid- A threat to the Queen of Conifers!

The dark but delicate beauty of hemlocks has inspired various poems and songs for centuries. Feathery, lacy and graceful, these trees are gorgeous additions to the landscape. No wonder that the hauntingly beautiful hemlock is referred to as the queen of conifers! Sadly, the giant hemlocks are under attack by an invasive wt4einsect barely visible to the eye but potent enough to completely wipe out these evergreens. For nearly 60 years or so, the woolly adelgid, which originated in Japan, has been killing our beloved hemlocks. It is called a woolly adelgid, because it is covered with a “woolly”, or fluffy white waxy covering for most of its life. This adelgid primarily sucks the sap out of the tree and deprives the tree of nutrients and sugar for energy. This defoliation could result in the death of a hemlock in around 3-6 years!

The Hemlock woolly adelgid first arrived in the U.S. Pacific Northwest via nursery plants from Japan in 1924. Since then the insect has spread to more than 15 US states! These crawlers feed on the new growth of hemlocks by piercing the twigs that hold the branches, sucking the sap, and injecting toxic adelgidsaliva. The needles turn from a deep green to a grayish green and eventually die, depriving the tree of nutrition from photosynthesis. Infection is signaled by either a white, cotton-like material that appears along a tree’s twigs or by the ‘baldness’ of a tree’s upper branches. Thehemlock woolly adelgid has enjoyed remarkable success in destroying trees because of its impressive reproductive potential: consider that one female in the winter generation produces an average of 200 eggs which in turn mature and each female of this generation produces on average another 200 eggs each. That’s 40,000 eggs in one year, starting from one individual female!

imagesBecause large woodland tracts of hemlocks are being decimated, the environment is being impacted negatively in several ways. Resultant erosion and heating up of streams destroys fish, other wildlife and watersheds. In Michigan, hemlocks had decreased by almost 70% in the short 20 year span between 1935 and 1955. Hemlock forests, which covered about 41% of the land area of the Bruce Peninsula, are almost non-existent today. Currently, more than 5000 acres of hemlocks across 119,000 acres in the southern tip of York County are considered infested with scattered, low level adelgid populations. These insects have killed almost 90% of hemlock trees in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. To mitigate the impact of the adelgid, the United States Forest Service has funded around $4.5 million per year in recent years!

The severity of this issue can be better understood by reading the following article;

cornel

Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Skaneateles Lake Watershed

Posted on: June 23, 2014  

Published by: Kristina Ferrare  

 The invasive insect, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae) also known as HWA has recently been confirmed on hemlock trees in the Bahar Nature Reserve along the western shore of Skaneateles Lake in the Town of Niles, and recently confirmed by the NYS DEC along the eastern shore in the Town of Spafford. HWA was first confirmed in Cayuga County in 2012, and has significantly expanded its range into the Owasco Lake Watershed and into Fillmore Glen State Park.

 HWA is a tiny aphid-like insect that feeds on twigs at the base of hemlock needles. The damage prevents the transport of nutrients to the needles and buds, effectively starving the tree. Tree death commonly occurs six or more years after infestation in the Finger Lakes region, but may cause death within 4 years in warmer states.  HWA gets its name from the white waxy hairs that protects the insect while it feeds in the winter, appearing like masses of white wool along the stems of hemlock branches.

Hemlock trees are known as keystone species – other species of plants and wildlife depend on hemlock trees as a food source, shelter, and insulation during summer and winter months. Without hemlock, the remaining ecological community also becomes threatened.  Hemlock is found in the deep coves and steep slopes characteristic of the southern end of Skaneateles Lake and much of the Finger Lakes region.

HWA has been in eastern US for well over 60 years, but didn’t get a foothold in NY until it was found in the lower Hudson Valley in the mid 1980’s. It has rapidly spread in recent years, likely aided by mild temperatures.  Recent cold weather has helped to slow the spread of HWA, but because it reproduces quickly, will have only a short term impact. Highly effective pesticide treatments are available, and research into biological controls in the Finger Lakes region is continuing.

Skaneateles Lake is the drinking water for the City of Syracuse and the widespread loss of hemlock has ecological consequences that can trigger loss of water quality in the lake. Treating hemlock trees for HWA should be done with caution in order to prevent unnecessary pesticide contamination into the Lake. 

_Woolly Adlegid2Evidently, unless proper measures are taken, hemlock, which is one of the most common trees in the US, may soon drop off the list, going the way of the now-vanished chestnut and elm due to the hemlock woolly adelgid. Infested hemlock trees can be protected individually with chemicals and insecticides. However, the costs associated with application, environmental safety concerns about applying toxic insecticides, and the tremendous reproductive potential of the adelgid makes this approach less feasible on a broad scale in natural areas. Also, it is obvious that simply removing and destroying infested stock, which proved so successful when dealing with individual infested trees, is not a feasible long term solution for addressing a large population of trees.

At C Tech Corporation, we offer a safe and infallible solution to deal with these tiny insects. Combirepel™ is a non-toxic, non-hazardous product that primarily repels insects and rodents from the application. It is a broad spectrum repellent which works against almost 500 species of pestering bugs thus efficaciously fending them away from the application.  The best feature of this product is that it is an eco-friendly product that causes no harm to the insect as well as humans and the environment. It is available in masterbatch and lacquer form, and as a liquid solution. To keep these insects at bay, this product can be coated on the tree trunks in lacquer form. The repelling mechanism of the product would ward off the hemlock woolly adelgidand any other insect that could harm the hemlock trees. Thus, using Combirepel™ would effectively ensure that our cherished hemlocks remain protected from this destructive pest!

Tobacco Budworms: Destructive crop pests

The tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens) is a moth of the tobacco_budworm02Noctuidae family. It is a native species and is found throughout the eastern and southwestern United States, though it is also found in California. It generally overwinters successfully only in southern states. However, it occasionally survives cold climates in greenhouses and other sheltered locations. Tobacco budworm disperses northward annually, and can be found in New England, New York, and southern Canada during the late summer. It also occurs widely in the Caribbean, and sporadically in Central and South America.

A devastating insect pest of tobacco and cotton, the budworm is an inch and a half long, pale green in color and has pale stripes. The female moths lay their eggs in the bud of tobacco plants and the tiny k0548-14i (1)larvae begin feeding in the unfolded leaflets of the plants, which leaves the plants ragged looking. It is principally a field crop pest, attacking such crops as alfalfa, clover, cotton, flax, soybean, and tobacco. However, it sometimes attacks such vegetables as cabbage, cantaloupe, lettuce, pea, pepper, pigeon pea, squash, and tomato, especially when cotton or other favored crops are abundant. Tobacco budworm is a common pest of geranium and other flower crops such as ageratum, bird of paradise, chrysanthemum, gardenia, geranium, petunia, mallow, marigold, petunia, snapdragon, strawflower, verbena, and zinnia.

The larvae feed on various crops, most notably Nicotiana species. The tobacco budworm is one of the most destructive pests of the tobacco. Eggs are laid on the tobacco leaves. The emerging larvae are light to dark green and have several longitudinal pale stripes. They may chew small holes in the leaves before they reach the buds. Larvae then damage the bud or growing tip of the plant. The leaves that expand from the buds are often ragged and distorted.

images (1)Tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens) larvae feed on tobacco foliage in the bud preflowering and on flowers pretopping.  Corn earworm larvae (Helicoverpa zea) may also be present in tobacco, and these 2 species are difficult to distinguish between as larvae without magnification. Tobacco budworm damage is caused only by the larvae. Larvae have chewing mouthparts and remove plant tissue. Although larvae can feed and develop on leaf tissue, the preferred feeding site in most crops is the buds or fruiting structures.

Tobacco budworm feeding results in holes in foliage i.e. type 1 damage and can destroy flowers and seed capsules, in seed production.  In some cases, tobacco budworm feeding can result in destruction of the apical growth point, prematurely topping the plant i.e. type 2 damage.  Type 1 damage is the most common type of tobacco budworm damage, and this type of feeding does not typically results in measurable yield loss.  This is because budworm injury occurs prior to topping, while plants are still growing.  The plant can compensate for the weight loss to tobacco budworm feeding.  Type 2 Damage is of greater economic concern, because it potentially increases labor costs for sucker control.  Type 2 Damage, however, is much rarer than Type 1 Damage.  Research is ongoing to determine if there are factors that favor Type 2 Damage and to revise treatment thresholds to take this type of damage into account.

tobacco5In the early evening, females lay single eggs on buds or leaves. The caterpillars become full-grown in about a month, drop to the soil and pupate. Adults emerge to repeat the cycle, with two generations normally produced each year. At the end of the season, when day length and temperatures begin to drop, the insects go into a state of suspended development (diapause), that they maintain through winter. Overwintering pupae generally are killed if exposed to temperatures below 20° F, but warm soil microclimates, like those around the foundations of heated buildings, can allow many to survive for the following year.

In 1997, tobacco budworm caused damage of about $ 17287000 and as control measure $ 27,736000 were spent to tackle the problem.

Let’s take a look at the following articles which reports the damage of cotton crop by tobacco budworm.

Cotton Growers Look for Yield Scapegoat

By Linda Breazeale

STARKVILLE — Late season cotton yield estimates have plummeted as drought and insect damage effects become apparent.

From the original yield estimate on Aug. 1 to the recently released Oct. 1 figures, Mississippi’s harvest estimate has dropped 660,000 bales — for a loss of hundreds of millions of dollars to the state’s economy.

“If you assume about $350 per bale or 70 cents per pound of lint and about $40 per bale for the seed, then the loss is in excess of $250 million,” said DeWitt Caillavet, agricultural economist at Mississippi State University. “When the multiplier effect is considered, the loss is around $682 million.”

Caillavet said the first estimate of 2.49 million bales for 1995 was based on conditions in July, when the crop was looking better than the 1994 crop of 2.132 million bales. Then drought conditions and tobacco budworms took control of the crop.

Delta counties, relatively unhurt by insect damage, were hit hardest by the late season drought after missing the early August rains of Hurricane Erin. Hill counties, most of which got the Erin rains but still struggled through the hot, dry weeks, were devastated by tobacco budworms.

tobacco_budworm07Some people have linked the high tobacco budworm numbers to the fact that this is the first year of the boll weevil eradication program on the eastern side of the state. Initial eradication efforts reduce beneficial insects as well as boll weevils.

Dr. Blake Layton, extension entomologist at MSU, said eradication efforts may have contributed to the tobacco budworm problem, but they were not the cause.

“In June we had substantially higher than normal tobacco budworm numbers both inside and outside the eradication area,” Layton said. “This suggests that the problem didn’t build up in the eradication area and move out to other counties.”

Layton said the June populations were more severe than normally seen in the hill area and egg lay continued over a longer period of time — three weeks instead of one. Heavy tobacco budworm damage occurred throughout much of the 450,000 acres of Mississippi’s hill cotton. Only 100,000 acres of this is in active boll weevil eradication.

“The distribution of the problem more closely follows the hill/Delta boundary than it does the eradication boundary. This suggests that environmental factors played the major role in this year’s outbreaks,” Layton said.

The entomologist said malathion treatments applied as part of the eradication effort aggravated the problem by destroying beneficial insects that helped control tobacco budworm. However, hill area growers outside the eradication area also had to deal with higher than normal boll weevil populations this season and treat more than usual with other insecticides that also destroy beneficial insects.

Layton said similar tobacco budworm damage occurred in other southeastern states, some in eradication areas and some not involved in active eradication efforts.

“Cotton growers don’t need to let this bad year deter them from achieving boll weevil eradication in Mississippi,” Layton said. “As long as we have boll weevils to deal with, there will be a greater risk of problems such as this year occurring. New products being developed and new cotton varieties that will help control tobacco budworms give growers hope for future years.”

Layton said the cause of all insect problems being more severe in 1995 probably can be attributed to a mild winter.

“We had much higher populations of other cotton pests, and they arrived much earlier in the season,” Layton said.

In Abilene, in the year 1997 it was reported that among the wide array of insects attacking cotton plant 60-70% were found to be tobacco worms.

To protect these crops from these pests, one can use agricultural films so that a barrier is established between the crops and the pests. This however is not sufficient as the pests find their way to crops by destroying the plastic films. The solution will be more effective if the film is capable of keeping the pests at bay in effective manner.

To make films effective against the pests, C Tech Corporation’s novel product Combirepel™ is the best solution. Combirepel™ is a non-toxic, non-hazardous and environment friendly additive especially designed for polymeric application. It can be added in agricultural films to make them repellent to pests. Termirepel™ works against termites, ants and 500 other insect species including tobacco budworms. Combirepel™ unlike the conventional pesticides does not kill the target or non-target species but only repel them.

Along with films, Combirepel™ can be added in mulches to protect the crops from the vile pests.

RODENTS DESTROYING FOOD!

“Rat floods turn the whole ecology upside down. There is a huge impact on insects and other wildlife too – habitats and food are simply wiped out.” This statement given by Dr. Grant Singleton to the BBC News, explains just how catastrophic rats can be. imagesThe sighting of a single rat in our house can send us into a state of panic. We buy rat poisons, set up rat traps or call the exterminator to make sure that we get rid of the rat for good. However, by then the rat may have reproduced and multiplied to a large number. There is no saying how much damage may have already been caused by them!

Rats and other rodents invade a man’s house, destroy his articles, live at his expenses and eat his food. Diseases such as leptospirosis may be caused by consuming food or water contaminated with the urine from infected rats! Stored foods, most commonly maize, rice, sorghum, millet, cereal products, etc. are particularly prone to rodent attacks. The loss of food worldwide due to these menacing creatures is astounding. It has been estimated that rats and mice destroy enough food each year to feed around 200 million people!

Rats consume approximately 25 gm of food per day and mice eat around 3-4 gm of food per day. A brown rat will have eaten as much as 50 kg of food by that time it reaches the age of 2 years. What they don’t eat, they spoil by contaminating the stored food with their urine, feces, hair and various pathogenic agents, thus rendering the food unfit for human consumption. It was reported that small colonies of Norway rats, each with access to a sack of wheat for about 18 weeks, contaminated 70% of the grain and caused a 4.4% loss in weight. The total monetary losses amounted to 18.2% of the value of the wheat and the sacks. Warehouses that contain food stored in bags or in bulk are particularly vulnerable to rodent attack.

Several incidences of rat infestation in warehouses and food storage areas have been reported up till now. The following article was published in the Southeast Missourian;

southeast

 

Rat patrol – Food warehouses under attack by USDA, rodents

By Don Babwin, The Associated Press

(July 8, 2002)

CHICAGO — On the city’s South Side is a six-story brick warehouse. Behind its walls are 14 million pounds of meat and poultry, and several million pounds of butter, fish, nuts and other food.

And it is home to some well-fed rats.

It’s the rats — determined creatures that apparently swam into LaGrou Cold Storage from the sewer — that led authorities to put a legal padlock on the door last week and raised the real possibility that all that food would be destroyed.

The food is now in limbo. The U.S. Department of Agriculture is waiting to see if dozens of companies with meat stored there can come up with a proposal to prove to the agency that at least some of the meat remains safe to eat. Meanwhile, federal officials have asked a judge to condemn the rest of the food.

‘Detained’ meat

Such a massive lockup is unusual. USDA spokesman Steven Cohen said nobody in his office can recall more meat being “detained.” At the same time, though, it is just another chapter in the ongoing war to protect meat and other food.

Last year, a Chicago wholesale food distributor and its chief executive pleaded guilty to federal charges stemming from the discovery of more than 61,000 pounds of rat-infested poultry products.

The charges came after an inspection of Hop Kee Inc. revealed, among other things, more than 50 live rats and several dead ones. There was evidence that some had enjoyed some meat in the freezer.

The presence of rats almost always signals other problems, and that was the case at Hop Kee. Along with the rats, inspectors found dead birds and “live and dead cockroaches in the bean wash room and bean incubator room, including inside pails of soaking beans…” according to a press release issued by Patrick Fitzgerald, the United States Attorney for the northern district of Illinois.

In 2000, a USDA compliance officer described conditions at Helmos Food Products in Chicago as the worst he’d ever seen. The officer told of live mice and rodent droppings covering a pallet of meat. Officials ended up destroying about 100,000 pounds of food. The owner was convicted of federal charges related to storing and distributing rodent-infested products.

Rat infestation, if detected early, can help prevent further destruction
by these creatures. The shape, size and appearance of their droppings can provide information about the spshutterstock_149284433ecies of rodent and the degree of infestation. The droppings of Norway rats are around 20mm in length while those of Black rats are around 15mm. Mouse droppings may be around 3 to 8mm in length. Once an infestation is detected, appropriate measures can be taken to counter the problem.

The control of rodents is integral to safeguard human health and to prevent food and economic losses. Most of this control work is directed towards preventing rats and other rodents from living in and around buildings, warehouses and storage areas containing food. This can effectively be done with the help of C Tech Corporation’s non-toxic and environment-friendly product, Combirepel™. Combirepel™ is a non-hazardous product that acts as a repellent for animals, especially rodents, as well as insects. It is unique in that it does not kill the animal; it only keeps the animal away thereby providing us with an environmentally safe solution for the rodent problem. Refrigerator gaskets, seals and other PVC applications can be incorporated with Combirepel™ to keep the rodents at bay. The surroundings of the warehouses can be coated with this product in lacquer form which would effectively keep the rodents away. Combirepel™ can also be used in the bags and storage containers used to store food in storage areas.

Protect our wood from vile pests!

There was Bronze Age, Copper Age, Iron Age and many other eras images (12)during which the use of one material was prominent. After a particular era the importance of the precious material has toned down. Wood however is the only material which still has its important status since time immemorial. Although the wood has been replaced by metals, polymer, ceramic and other materials in many applications, wooden artifacts are still considered of great value. We still find people who fill their beloved homes with wooden furniture to make it beautiful and more authentic.

Wood is one of the oldest friends of man and is always found in proximity to them in the form of bed, dinner table, chairs, grandfather’s clock, grandpa’s arm chair and many more. Loving and download (2)decorating our homes with wooden furniture is fine but protecting them from some of the vile species is of utmost importance. Species which were meant to help environment by giving a hand in biodegradation of wood have actually now become a big menace. Species like termites, carpenter ants, etc. attack healthy wood and have the capability to turn them into dust. Apart from termites and carpenter ants, we also have wood boring beetles that vilify the wood.

About three hundred different species of wood-boring beetles are known to occur in our domestic woodwork indoors, but of these only seven are of frequent occurrence, and it is to the larval or grub stage that we apply the description ‘woodworm’. Woodboring beetles are commonly detected a few years after new construction. There are three groups of wood-boring beetles—powderpost, images (11)deathwatch, and false powderpost.

Many different types of wood structures and commodities have been damaged by these wood borers. Timber, planks, musical instruments, and wood carvings are the examples of the commodities damaged.

The wood borers especially powder post beetles do significant damage to wooden commodities, much more than that done by carpenter ants. The damage is done by the larvae that feed and reduce the wood to a fine powder or mass of small pellets and create narrow, meandering tunnels in the wood.

images (8)After the adult female emerges, she seeks other open-grained wood and deposits an egg in a pore. After hatching, the larvae eat their way into the wood, completing the cycle in about one year. This process may be repeated on the same piece of wood one quarter to one half inch from the emergence of the hole. Wood finishes: varnish, paint and waxes prevent an infestation. However, the insects already inside the wood will continue to thrive and eventually will emerge through the treated surface.

The lumber supply may have contained wood infected with beetle eggs or larvae, and since beetle life cycles can be one or more years, several years may pass before the presence of beetles becomes noticeable. In many cases, the beetles will be of a type that only attacks living wood, and thus incapable of “infesting” any other pieces of wood, or doing any further damage.

images (4)There are several indicators that wood-boring beetles are present. Probably the most common sign of a wood-boring beetle infestation is the presence of holes chewed by the adult beetles upon emergence. Another indicator is a powdery material called frass that beetles often produce while feeding. Frass is plant fragments made by a wood-boring insect; it is usually mixed with excrement. The beetles push the frass from the holes they have made in the infested wood. This frass usually gets piled below the holes or in cracks in structures. The consistency of the frass ranges from very fine to coarse, depending on the species.

images (5)Sometimes an infestation is indicated by the presence of wood-boring beetle adults. Adult beetles that emerge in confined structures are attracted to lights or windows and may accumulate at these locations.

Other signs of an infestation include stained wood or a blistering appearance on the wood surface caused by larvae tunneling just below the surface. Less commonly, immature beetles produce audible rasping or ticking sounds while chewing on the wood. These chewing sounds are most often heard during quiet times at night.

To stop this night time chirping steps have to be taken at root level i.e. the lumber from which the wooden commodities are made should be protected from these borers. To curb this problem of the wood borer, a unique solution in contrast to the typical hazardous, non-effective has to be adopted. And there is a solution, infact a Green solution provided by C Tech Corporation: Combirepel™ WP solution. Combirepel™ is a non-toxic, non-hazardous and environment friendly product, with a high efficacy to repel insects like wood borers from the wood. Combirepel™ is a multitasking product; along with wood borer it protects the wood from vicious termites, notorious carpenter ants and other insects. Combirepel™ in solution form can be injected at high pressure in the lumber so as to prevent the infestation. It is also available in lacquer form which can be applied on the furniture, patios, floor as coating so as to prevent further infestation.

BIRDS- FRIENDS OR FOE?

Nuisance-bird-cherry-orchard-300x240Birds, although extremely likeable and interesting, can be a bit too much to handle if they are in the mood to wreak havoc. The impact of this damage is usually felt in the agriculture sector. All over the world, grape growers have problems with birds ruining crops and the extent of damage to crops, caused by birds of varying types is often significant. Birds damage crops by either pecking or consuming fruits or flowers. Continuous feeding may result in the loss of the entire produce and sometimes even lead to secondary infection.

Bird damage to grapes and tender fruit (mainly sweet cherries and cultivated blueberries) is especially a serious problem for many growers. Unchecked, birds can completely destroy an entire crop. A flock of 5,000 starlings can consume up to 1 ton of food over a 10 day period, and blackbirds were blamed for an estimated loss of 15 million tons of food worldwide in 1968. This is enough to feed 90 million people. Even with the best effort and control equipment, bird damage will still occur. The presence of pecked and partly damaged fruit can result in significant penalties for quality downgrades and can add considerable labour costs during harvesting, when growers try to remove individual damaged fruits. Bird damage can also make it necessary to harvest early, resulting in a downgrading of both the quality and quantity of fruit. Damage to foliage, particularly by cockatoos and rosellas, occurs where the birds clip branches, stems and whole fruits, damage buds and growing tips, or pull up seedlings. Bird damage to foliage can directly affect fruit or nut production in the season it occurs, but can also influence plant growth in subsequent seasons. This is particularly serious when damage occurs at, or below, the lower internodes of growing plants.

pg13-1Birds cause losses to horticulture by damaging or removing shoots, stems, foliage, buds or fruit; by damaging infrastructure, including irrigation systems; or by secondary spoilage through infection with moulds, yeasts or bacteria or through insect damage. In a study in the Eden Valley of South Australia, 57% of buds of grapevines were damaged by birds. While damage varied widely between crop types and regions, horticulturalists’ estimates of damage averaged 7% for wine and table grapes; 13% for apples and pears; 16% for stone fruits; and 22% in the nut industry. In 2000, a survey of 30 local grape growers by Sydney University in the Central Ranges of New South Wales found that bird control was costing on average $500 per hectare per year, with most techniques failing to adequately protect crops.

The article given below is just one of the many incidences of crop damage by birds.

farmers

Farmer frustrated as swans ruin crops

11 May 2013

A farmer who claims he lost £20,000 of his income due to an overpopulation of swans has been left ‘frustrated’ after his application to shoot them was refused. 

East Midlands farmer, Jack Codd, tried numerous preventative measures to keep more than ten swans off his land, but was still refused a license from Natural England.

The swans had been eating away at his 16 hectare (40 acre) oilseed rape crop in Nottinghamshire for two months, but Natural England said because the swans had begun to disperse, a license could not be granted.

A spokesman said: “Natural England cannot issue a license unless all available non-lethal measures have been tried and found to be ineffective or impractical.”

Mr Codd said: “I do not really want to shoot the swans but I do not think I should be expected to sit down and do nothing while the swans munch away at the rape, resulting in a huge financial loss.”

A total of nine strategies have been deployed in a bid to scare the swans away from the field, including using a police distress siren, barrier tape and posts, and bird scaring rockets.

Mr Codd said: “Even the four foot flying imitation hawk we bought does not scare them, they just carry on coming on to the land.

“What I find frustrating is the fact we have tried all the recommendations given by Natural England and none of them work, and they still tell you to do it again. It undermines my intelligence.”

Natural England has now suggested erecting an electrified fence around the field to prevent the swans walking on to the land, and to stop them returning in the future.

This would be at a further cost to Mr Codd, whose land is located beside the River Trent, a prime location for attracting swans.

Natural England added: “We would also advise to consider crop rotation on the fields by the river. Introducing spring sown cereals would be less likely to encourage the swans to paddle and graze over your fields.”

bird4Reducing bird damage is difficult because of the unpredictability of damage from year to year and a lack of information about the cost-effectiveness of commonly used management practices. Farmers and fruit growers use bird netting to drape the plants and vines with a special net developed to keep out birds. Although bird netting give some sort of protection, it is not fool proof. What we need is a safe, non-toxic method to keep these birds at bay, without using hazardous poisonous chemicals that may harm the environment. Combirepel™, a product offered by C Tech Corporation, is the solution to all your bird-related problems!

Combirepel™ is a non-toxic, non-hazardous and environmentally safe additive that may be used to repel rodents and birds from the application. This product keeps pesky birds and rodents at bay, without causing them any harm. The most striking feature that differentiates it from harmful pesticides is that it is not toxic and will have no negative effect on the environment whatsoever! Combirepel™ is available in masterbatch, lacquer form or as a liquid solution. This product, if incorporated in mulches or agricultural films used to cover the grains and crops, could effectively protect our yield from the disastrous effects of these birds.